Biology Examination Paper Options

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Now you’ve completed The 2018 HSC Biology examination, you’ll wish to see how you probably did, proper? Properly, let’s have a look. The Matrix Science Crew has been laborious at work getting the options collectively for you. Whereas the official examination paper has not but been launched by NESA, listed here are our draft urged options and a few explanations in case you wished to know ASAP! Learn on for the 2018 HSC Biology Examination Paper options.

This paper was damaged into two sections.

Part 1 is in two elements and had two elements – a number of alternative and brief reply.

Half A – 20 a number of alternative questions value 20 marks

Half B – 10 brief reply questions value 55 marks

Part 2 is predicated on choice matters and has 5 questions, one for every choice. College students had to decide on one query to reply hich was value 25 marks and had mutliple elements.

We’ve included the solutions to the 2 hottest choice matters:

  • Communication
  • Genetics: The Code Damaged

Please get pleasure from our options from the science workforce, under.


Part I: Half A – A number of Selection

Query Reply Rationalization
1. B Ectotherms can’t regulate their physique temperature so should bask within the solar to heat up sufficient to maneuver and even digest meals.
2. B Salts are transported as dissolved ions within the plasma.
3. D Cells across the pathogen can by killed to type a barrier to cease the pathogen from spreading. In some instances this may type a cyst.
4. B Mitosis produces two genetically equivalent cells, whereas meiosis produces 4 genetically completely different cells.
5. A The speed at which evolution occurs is the one distinction between the 2 theories.
6. C Beadle and Tatum used x-rays to induce mutations in bread mould.
7 C The cortex resides on the surface of the kidney; the medulla is within the center and the ureter transports the urine to the bladder.
8. A Micro organism are prokaryotes which have a cell wall, however no membrane certain organelles similar to a nucleus.
9. C Sunken stomata scale back that fee that water is misplaced from the leaf by creating a damp setting simply exterior to the stomate.
10. D Synthetic insemination can be utilized to fertilise a number of females with the sperm of some males. Cloning produces people with equivalent genotypes.
11. D No plant with any proof of illness is prone to be allowed to go away quarantine. Plant Z has particular person raised bumps that point out insect eggs throughout the leaf or sap-sucking exercise.
12. B The graph for X displays how endotherms can preserve a continuing physique temperature aside from in excessive circumstances of warmth or chilly.
13. A The 2 populations of snakes have skilled completely different choice pressures and have now diverged. One inhabitants has a special common jaw measurement to the opposite. Divergent evolution doesn’t essentially lead to a brand new species.
14. A The situation isn’t dominant as a result of there are two unaffected dad and mom with affected youngsters. The situation isn’t sex-linked recessive as an unaffected father (particular person 1) has produced an affected daughter. Due to this fact, it’s an autosomal recessive situation.
15. D Aldosterone acts on the distal tubule not the accumulating duct. Giant plasma proteins don’t transfer into the bowman’s capsule.
16. B Helper T cells by no means differentiate into one other kind of cell or produce antibodies. Phagocytes will not be a part of the particular immune response.
17 D Vaccines are simplest towards the parasite when its antigens are accessible, earlier than the parasite enters a cell. Medication could assist as soon as the parasite enters the purple blood cells. Spraying swarms and utilizing mosquito nets will solely be affective within the phases earlier than the vector injects the parasite right into a human.
18. A Purple blood cells have a diameter round 8 µm. The parasite seems to be round one quarter of the diameter of the purple blood cell, so round 2 µm. 0.002 mm is equal to 2 µm.
19. C Color blindness is recessive, thus particular person 1 could have the genotype Xa Y. Particular person 2 could have inherited one recessive allele from the colour-blind father so could have the genotype XA Xa. When 1 and a couple of are crossed (utilizing a punnet sq.) it produces the genotypes XA XA, XA Y, Xa Xa, and Xa Y. Thus 50% of the female and male offspring will probably be colourblind.
20. C Organism X maintains inside salt focus whatever the exterior setting. That is an instance of homeostasis. Organism Y doesn’t regulate inside salt focus and is demonstrating enantiostasis.



Part I: Half B – Quick Reply

Query Mark Answer
21 (a) 2 Responses to a lower in physique temperature in endotherms embrace: vasoconstriction, piloerection, shivering.
21 (b) 2 A unfavourable suggestions loop is used to take care of physique temperature in endotherms. Thermoreceptors within the mind detect modifications in physique temperature and ship the sign by way of sensory neurons to the central nervous system (interneurons of the mind or spinal twine). The central nervous system then sends a sign to an effector (muscle or gland) by way of motor neurons in response to the change. E.g. if temperature is just too excessive sweat glands will probably be directed to supply sweat.
22 (a) 2 Pasteur produced two swan-neck flasks half stuffed with broth and boiled them each. He then snapped the neck of 1 flask. After a number of days, the broth within the broken flask had modified color and smelled dangerous whereas the opposite flask had not modified color. This disproved the speculation of spontaneous technology and confirmed that it’s microbes within the air (not air itself) that results in decay
22 (b) 3 Koch’s experiments supplied proof for the truth that microscopic pathogens could cause illness. He developed a course of which permits us to determine the microorganism which causes a selected illness – that is known as Koch’s postulates. Koch’s work with anthrax confirmed that particular microbes could be linked to particular infectious ailments.
23 (a) 3 The dependent variable is the burden of a plant chopping in a cylinder with water. (The entire arrange is to be weight earlier than and after publicity to gentle for a variety of hours).

The management is a plant chopping arrange within the cylinder with water however saved in whole darkness.

Variables to maintain fixed embrace: temperature, humidity, plant species, quantity of water supplied.

23 (b) 2 Solutions embrace: Transpiration, cohesion, adhesion, rigidity or capillary motion.

Cohesion of water molecules to at least one one other is a mechanism for the motion of water by xylem vessels in the course of the means of transpiration. As one water molecule strikes up the xylem, cohesion causes the water molecules under it to observe.

24 (a) 3 blog-biology-solutions-question-24-a-graph
24 (b) 3 In 2014-2015 the flu vaccine solely decreased a person’s probability of getting the flu by 19%, whereas the opposite values recorded range from 41-60%. The influenza vaccine works by exposing the affected person’s immune system to antigens from the floor of the virus in order that reminiscence cells will probably be fashioned that recognise the antigen. Nevertheless, the influenza virus has a excessive fee of mutation and it’s doable that by the point the vaccine was produced, examined and administered to the inhabitants a brand new pressure of flu had emerged with completely different antigens on its floor and unfold all through the inhabitants.
25 (a) 1 These three measures are from arterial blood fuel evaluation.
25 (b) 3 The sufferers oxygen ranges are on the upper-end of regular vary which signifies that the affected person is getting sufficient oxygen. Nevertheless, the CO2 ranges within the blood are literally decrease than regular. This implies there may be much less CO2 to type carbonic acid with water within the physique, which can clarify the marginally excessive pH of the blood. The situation of the affected person ought to proceed to be monitored utilizing common arterial blood fuel evaluation. If the pH of the blood turns into too excessive the pH in physique cells will turn into excessive and this may denature enzymes, stopping them from functioning correctly and slowing down metabolic processes.
26 (a) 2 A polypeptide is a sequence of amino acids that’s coded for by a single gene. It has not been folded and is thus non-functional. A protein consists of a number of polypeptides which have been folded into a selected three-dimensional form and might carry out a perform.
26 (b) i 3 A mutation within the AVP gene would lead to a change in no less than one codon on the mRNA transcript of the gene for ADH. Until it’s a silent mutation, this might in flip lead to no less than one incorrect amino acid being added by the ribosome to supply the polypeptide chain that may type the protein. If this alteration leads to an amino acid that’s chemically very completely different from the unique one, it’ll lead to a change in perform for the ADH protein.
26 (b) ii 1 ADH controls the reabsorption of water by rising the permeability of the distal convoluted tubule. If the an AVP mutation leads to a dysfunctional protein, then the water won’t be reabsorbed by the kidney when it ought to and the kidney will produce dilute urine.
27 4 Terrestrial mammals convert ammonia into urea within the liver. This can be a much less poisonous substance that may be saved throughout the physique and requires much less water (however extra vitality) to take away. The kidney filters urea out of the blood, reabsorbing a considerable amount of water so {that a} minimal quantity of water is misplaced e.g. 1-2L per day in people. Metabolic water is reused and extra salt is excreted.
28 (a) 2 A genotype is the genetic make-up of a person, whereas phenotype is the person’s observable traits. The phenotype could be influenced by the setting because the setting impacts gene expression. For instance, an individual could have two copies of an allele that makes folks tall, but when they’ve poor vitamin they are going to be brief.
28 (b) 4 The presence of the mites acts as a range strain on the inhabitants of mammals. These people which might be badly affected could have bald patches, a phenotype that leaves them susceptible to the chilly and extra prone to die.

These people which might be heterozygous for the co-dominant allele usually tend to survive and go the allele on to their offspring, rising the frequency of this allele within the inhabitants.

People which might be homozygous are infertile and can’t go the allele on to their offspring, however as a result of people which might be heterozygous have a bonus they’re prone to survive, reproduce, and go the allele on to the subsequent technology. Thus, regardless of the drawback produced by the allele it’s nonetheless maintained throughout the inhabitants.

29 (a) 2 Throughout interphase the DNA is replicated throughout the cell in preparation for cell division. DNA replication includes the enzyme helicase which unwinds the DNA double helix into two separate strands by breaking the hydrogen bonds between the bases.

DNA polymerase enzymes then journey alongside every strand including complimentary nucleotides till two equivalent DNA copies have been fashioned, every containing half of the unique strand.

29 (b) 5 Throughout prophase I chromatin condenses to type chromosomes consisting of two equivalent chromatids.

There’s one maternally inherited chromosome and one paternally inherited. That is seen within the mannequin as chromosomes with completely different colors.

Throughout prophase I the homologous chromosomes be part of collectively (synapsis) and swap segments in a course of referred to as crossing over. The result’s chromosomes with each maternal and paternal segments, seen as completely different colored segments of chromosomes within the mannequin. This leads to new combos of alleles.
In metaphase I the homologous chromosomes line up in pairs alongside the metaphase plate. Then in Anaphase I every chromosome within the pair strikes (randomly) to reverse ends of the cell.

In telophase the nuclear envelope dissolves and the chromosomes start to decondense into chromatin. Cytokinesis completes the division of the cell into two distinctive daughter cells.

30 8 Within the 100 years between 1900 and 2000, developments within the identification, remedy and prevention of illness have elevated life expectance for all ages listed within the graph above. Nevertheless, the best enhance in life expectancy was seen in new-borns, which means that the danger of demise between start and age 20 has been dramatically decreased. Partially this is because of developments in stopping childhood ailments with methods similar to hygiene practices, vaccination and antibiotics.

The work of Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch recognized microbes as the reason for illness. Koch developed postulates to determine which particular microbe was related to a illness. Pasteur experimented with vaccinations and developed a technique of heating meals merchandise to kill off contaminating microbes (now referred to as pasteurisation). As soon as microbes have been recognized because the trigger, efforts may deal with stopping the unfold of microbes with a purpose to forestall illness.

Hygiene practices have been launched to encourage medical practitioners, meals preparers and most of the people to clean their arms recurrently to stop the unfold of microbes. In lots of international locations water filtration programs have been launched to supply clear ingesting water to the general public by way of strategies similar to filtration and chlorination. Quarantine necessities have been developed to stop the unfold of ailments in vegetation, animals and folks by worldwide journey (e.g. delivery ports, airports, border crossings).

An necessary method to stop illness is vaccination. As soon as a microbe has been recognized as the reason for a illness, the antigens from its’ floor could be remoted and utilized in a vaccination. As soon as injected into the physique, the immune system learns to recognise the antigen and produce reminiscence cells which will probably be activated if the pathogen is encountered. The introduction of wide-scale vaccination campaigns within the twentieth century result in a dramatic lower in deaths from ailments similar to polio which now solely happens in round 3 international locations. Smallpox has now been utterly eradicated saving hundreds of thousands of lives. Ailments similar to measles, mumps and rubella at the moment are very uncommon in developed international locations with childhood vaccination schedules. This has had a serious influence on the life expectancy of individuals at start.

New therapies for illness similar to antivirals and antibiotics have had a big impact. When antibiotics have been first launched within the Forties they might simply remedy what have been as soon as lethal bacterial infections. Antibiotics have saved hundreds of thousands of lives, however in recent times many micro organism have turn into proof against antibiotics and new therapies should be discovered. In consequence current methods have shifted from remedy to prevention.

There was a dramatic enhance in anticipated life span over the twentieth century. That is notably evident in new-borns, the place the life expectancy elevated from round 47 years to 73 years. This enhance is because of organic developments in identification, remedy and prevention of illness throughout this time.

Part II – Choice Questions

Query 31 Communication

Query Mark Answer
31 (a) i 2 Any two: Cornea, aqueous humour, lens, vitreous humour.
31 (a) ii 2 Beam A will strike the fovea whereas beam B will strike the periphery of the retina. On the fovea there may be higher notion of color and likewise extra element detected as there are extra cones than the periphery and they’re packed right into a small area. On the periphery there are extra rods than cones so there may be much less detection of element or color, however good detection of sunshine and darkish.
31 (b) 4 Air is moved out from the lungs to the higher respiratory tract by the contraction of belly muscle mass and stress-free of the diaphragm. The air passes by the larynx and produces vibrations within the vocal cords, leading to audible sounds. The frequency of those vibrations determines the pitch of the sound, since they’re straight proportional to one another. Sounds of various pitches are managed by the place and rigidity of the vocal cords. Growing the stress of the vocal folds will increase the frequency at which it vibrates, leading to the next pitched sound. Alternatively, decreasing the stress of vocal folds decreases the frequency of the sound, which leads to decrease pitches.
31 (c) i 2 Grownup A has much more overlap within the vary of detection for every of the three cones. Grownup A additionally has a better variety of inexperienced and purple cones that reply inside their wavelength ranges.
31 (c) ii 3 In grownup B there may be much less overlap between the wavelengths detected by every of the three cones. In actual fact, the purple and inexperienced cones don’t overlap in any respect. These overlaps are necessary within the detection of intermediate colors similar to orange which requires stimulation of purple and inexperienced cones on the identical time. Grownup B will be unable to detect sure intermediate colors because the mind won’t obtain the proper mixture of alerts from the cones. They could additionally could also be much less delicate to inexperienced and purple as much less cones reply and ship alerts to the mind compared to grownup A.
31 (d) 5 blog-biology-solutions-question-31-d-eyeball-image
31 (e) 7 People are capable of detect the colors of the seen spectrum, starting from 440-700 nm and listen to sounds from 20Hz – 20 000 Hz. The weight loss plan of our human ancestors consisted partially of fruit, and therefore by differentiating between completely different colors, ancestral people would be capable of distinguish between ripe and unripe fruit. The sound frequency vary they’ll detect is greater than ample for verbal communication. On account of evolution nonetheless, completely different teams of organisms have completely different wants and talents to detect electromagnetic radiation or sound. Thus, the fashions of listening to and sight are completely different for different animals.

The incidence of color imaginative and prescient corresponds to their use of color within the setting. For instance, planarians reside in a darkish setting and therefore don’t require any color imaginative and prescient. They possess a fundamental eye-cup construction to solely detect route and depth of sunshine, however there isn’t any want for color as a type of visible communication, therefore there isn’t any want for color imaginative and prescient.

In distinction, bees are bugs which possess compound eyes composed of numerous singular photoreceptor models known as ommatidia. Every ommatidia has its personal lens, pigment and receptor cells. This leads to trichromatic color imaginative and prescient (UV, blue, inexperienced, orange however not purple). Color and UV is used because the means by which flowers are capable of “talk their whereabouts” to the bees for pollination. Honey bees detect a portion of the ultraviolet spectrum along with the blue-green finish of the seen spectrum, starting from 300-700 nm. Thus, color imaginative and prescient in bees permits the organisms to shortly find pollen and nectar.

Snakes are capable of detect gentle from 480-850 nm which incorporates the infrared a part of the spectrum. As infrared gentle is produced by warmth, snakes can use this sense to detect heat blooded prey at evening when searching.

Sound is a very versatile type of communication and mammals similar to people have ears made up of an outer, center, and internal ear section. The internal ear consists of the cochlea that converts sound into mechanical vibration of the ear hairs (stereocilia) after which into electrical alerts which might be despatched to the mind. Nevertheless sound detection mechanisms range broadly between animals. Totally different animals have completely different ranges of detection. For instance bats can detect between 10 000 and 150 000 Hz as they use ultrasound for echolocation. In contrast elephants hear between 5 – 12 000 Hz as they use infrasound for communication.

Bugs don’t have a cochlea however have a Tympanum membrane on the entrance legs or stomach that detect vibrations in air and Chordotonal organs positioned within the legs that detect vibration by surfaces.

Fish have laborious Otoliths that vibrate and trigger hair cells to maneuver, triggering sensory neurons. These are used for detection of excessive frequency sound whereas a Lateral line system (involving stereocilia in cupula) is used for detection of decrease low frequency sounds. The swim bladder is used as a resonance chamber. Thus the fashions of listening to and imaginative and prescient in animals may be very completely different to that of people as animals have very completely different wants.

Query 33 Genetics: The Code Damaged?

Query Mark Answer
33 (a) i 2 Diploid cells have twice as many chromosomes as haploid cells. In diploid cells there may be one maternal and one paternal chromosome in every homologous pair whereas in haploid cells the homologous chromosomes have undergone crossing over. Every chromosome now incorporates a mix of maternal and paternal genetic materials.
33 (a) ii 2 Diploid cells have twice as many chromosomes as haploid cells. In diploid cells there may be one maternal and one paternal chromosome in every homologous pair whereas in haploid cells the homologous chromosomes have undergone crossing over. Every chromosome now incorporates a mix of maternal and paternal genetic materials.
33 (b) 4 Genes are copied onto mRNA after which the bases are learn by the ribosomes in teams of three (a codon). Every codon corresponds to an amino acid.

A base substitution will substitute only one base on the DNA. This can change a single codon on the mRNA and one incorrect amino acid will probably be included within the polypeptide. In some instances, a silent mutation will happen and the codon will nonetheless code for a similar amino acid.

or instance, if the primary base was modified from A to G the DNA sequence would learn GTC AGT CGT ACG ATC GCA TA and the mRNA would learn as CAG UCA GCA UGC UAG CGU AU. Solely the primary amino acid will probably be affected.

In contrast, a frameshift mutation will change all the codons within the gene from the purpose the place the mutation occurred, doubtlessly leading to many extra amino acids being incorrectly coded. That is extra prone to lead to a dysfunctional protein.

For instance, if a G was inserted firstly of the DNA sequence it could learn GAT CAG TCG TAC GAT CGC ATA and the mRNA would learn as CUA GUC AGC AUG CUA GCG UAU. All the amino acids on this sequence can be incorrect and the protein product would probably be dysfunctional. (In actual fact the fourth codon is now a cease codon and the polypeptide won’t be accomplished. This can be a nonsense mutation.)

33 (c) i 2 Folks with Lynch syndrome have an 80% probability of getting colon most cancers of their lifetime, which may be very excessive in comparison with the overall inhabitants which has a lifetime threat under 10%. The danger of endometrial most cancers can also be a lot greater, being 60% in somebody with Lynch syndrome in comparison with lower than 10% within the basic inhabitants (of girls).
33 (c) ii 3 As Lynch syndrome is autosomal dominant a person solely must inherit one copy of the defective allele with a purpose to have the situation. The people within the graph that have been recognized with most cancers almost definitely had it on account of Lynch syndrome.

Nevertheless, Lynch syndrome doesn’t trigger most cancers in 100% of people which might be carrying the allele so some people within the household that don’t have most cancers should be carrying the allele. The feminine that was recognized with colon most cancers at age 37 is prone to have inherited lynch syndrome from the mom who was carrying the allele however didn’t have most cancers.

Which means 3/4 of the second technology had no less than one allele for lynch syndrome and means that the dad and mom within the first technology each have been heterozygous for lynch syndrome.

33 (d) 5
  1. A diploid somatic cell with 32 chromosomes is faraway from the animal to be cloned.
  2. An unfertilised haploid egg with 16 chromosomes is faraway from a special particular person of the identical species.
  3. The nucleus is faraway from the egg, it’s now enucleated (0 chromosomes).
  4. The diploid somatic cell (32 chromosomes) is fused with the enucleated egg (0 chromosomes) utilizing {an electrical} pulse.
  5. The egg (32 chromosomes) is stimulated to start cell division to type an embryo.
  6. The embryo (32 chromosomes) is implanted in a surrogate that offers start after regular gestation.
  7. The DNA fingerprint of the offspring is in comparison with the DNA fingerprint of the somatic cell donor to verify that they’re equivalent.
33 (e) 7 The method of manufacturing cloned transgenic mice with a gene for a human illness requires a posh understanding of genes and gene applied sciences. Even earlier than DNA was found an understanding of genetic inheritance was established by researchers similar to Mendel and Morgan (who found sex-linkage).

The Watson and Crick mannequin of DNA permits to grasp the double helix construction of the DNA molecule and the way DNA consists of the 4 bases (Adenine, Thymine, Guanine and Cytosine). This permits us to look at the ‘code’ that makes up dwelling issues and was step one in enabling researchers to control that code. Beadle and Tatum established that sections of the DNA known as ‘genes’ have been offering the code for the manufacturing of proteins, or polypeptides extra particularly.

Ultimately the method of transcription and translation was found, whereby a gene is copied as mRNA which is then learn by a ribosome. The ribosome assembles amino acids based mostly on the code on the mRNA.

In an effort to analysis ailments, the genes which might be accountable for them needed to be recognized. The human genome challenge efficiently positioned all coding genes on the human genome. It didn’t determine what they did however enabled scientists to map the situation of genes and start the method of figuring out what every gene does and its potential function in illness. As soon as a disease-causing gene is recognized, DNA sequencing permits scientists to determine the precise code of a disease-causing gene similar to muscular dystrophy.

This understanding of genes and DNA ultimately result in the event of transgenic organisms, the place a gene from one species is inserted into the genome of one other. For instance, the muscular dystrophy gene could be faraway from a human cell and inserted into the plasmid of a micro organism. The bacterium is allowed to breed by binary fission to supply many copies of the gene. The gene can then be inserted right into a mouse egg nucleus, with the ensuing offspring containing the gene in all of its cells.

Tissue cells can then be taken from the offspring and used to supply clones. The tissue cells are fused with enucleated egg cells, and thus are the one contributors of genetic info. All the offspring will probably be equivalent to the transgenic tissue donor. This course of requires an understanding of how genetic info is contained within the nucleus.

Fashions similar to these at the moment are recurrently produced with a purpose to examine completely different human ailments. These fashions solely exist because of the accumulation of data about genes and gene applied sciences.



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